Skin cancer is the generic name of cancer affecting the skin.
Types of skin cancer:
- Squamous cell carcinoma;
- Basal cell carcinoma.
Diagnosis of skin cancer in Israel
A diagnostic program for the treatment of skin cancer in Israel may include several types of surveys:
- Dermatologist consultation and inspection of the skin (visual and hardware).
- A biopsy of the tumor is the most accurate method of diagnosis. During the procedure with local anesthesia the specialist takes a sample of the affected skin area. The material is examined in the laboratory for the presence of malignant cells.
Types of biopsies used to diagnose and treat test results:
- Cutting - with a thin and sharp surgical knife is cut an abnormal build-up. Mainly it is carried out at suspicion on basal or squamous cell carcinoma;
- Needle biopsy (trepanobiopsy) - with a sharp instrument and hollow under local anesthesia is removed deeper tissue, including all layers of the epidermis, inside the tumor;
- An incisional biopsy involves partial removal of the tumor;
- Excisional biopsy - removal of the entire tumor and some tissue around it. This type of survey is most often used to diagnose melanoma.
If during the histological examination revealed the presence of cancer cells, are assigned additional tests to determine the stage of the tumor, its spread to other organs and other aspects. In Israeli hospitals it is possible to diagnose skin cancer without a biopsy.
Imaging. PET-CT is performed, if it is suspicion on squamous cell carcinoma due to the risk of invasion of tumor to the lymph nodes and internal organs. May be also performed computer tomography of the chest, abdomen, pelvis.
Laboratory diagnosis is required to differentiate inflammatory skin diseases.
The entire period of the survey will take approximately 5 days.
Treatment of skin cancer in Israel
The choice of cancer treatment method is due to the size of the tumor, the proliferation of the malignant process, type of cancer, age and general condition of the patient. Typically is used a complex method, which comprises applying several therapeutic modalities. This makes it possible to achieve significant improvements of patient`s health in case of such as diseases as skin cancer, bone cancer, breast cancer and so forth.
Surgical treatment of skin cancer
Mohs method (Moss)
This method of treatment of skin cancer has been developed by Dr. Frederick Mohs in 1930. Today, it is an effective method of surgical treatment, namely the removal of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
Indications for use:
- Recurrences of skin cancer;
- Tumors with high risk of recurrence;
- Malignant tumors located in anatomical areas that require maximum preservation of the skin, restoring the physiological functions and minimal aesthetic defects (facial area, genitals).
Mohs method is the most accurate method of treatment for skin cancer by removing the cancerous tumor with metastases to other areas of the skin with the study of pathological material. The operation is performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia.
Procedural steps of Mohs method:
- The surgeon removes the visible tumor with a thin layer of tissue surrounding it. For histological examination the skin is removed layer-by-layer, which ensures 100% removal of cancerous cells without damaging healthy tissue. Then the specialist creates a detailed map of the wound and removed segment - Mohs map. The patient was sent to the waiting room.
- Histological stage. Tissue samples are studied in the laboratory within 40-60 minutes.
- Using the results of histology and Mohs map, the surgeon performs the removal of additional tissue sections, where there are traces of the tumor.
In general, this operation lasts for 4 hours.
Possible options for further treatment of skin cancer in Israel:
- Healing of the wound naturally. Such method often gives better results, but it is used for tumors of small size.
- Cosmetic surgery after Mohs surgery.
- Deferred surgery the next day after surgery Mohs or a few days later.
Using Mohs method full recovery is noted in 97-98% of cases.
This method of treatment of skin cancer in most cases is used for removing basal cell or squamous tumors of small size. Removal is done with a sharp instrument in the form of a spoon - curette. Surgeon destroys the remaining cancer cells use a special device that sends an electric current in the affected area to prevent bleeding. Treatment of skin cancer using this method is carried out in several steps (3 or 2) in order to remove all the cancerous cells. Typically, are remained small scars after surgery.
It can be administered in the early stages of melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma mainly in cases when there is no possibility to use other types of surgery. Liquid nitrogen is applied on nevus, which freezes the tumor and kills cancer cells. Cryosurgery may cause swelling, redness of the skin.
In the face area such cryosurgical treatment of skin cancer in Israel creates tightening scars that distort facial features (if the size of tumor is 10 mm or more). Therefore, the method of fractional cryosurgery can be applied to this area.
Laser is used to destroy the tumor in such cases:
- micronodular or basal cell carcinoma;
- non recurrent tumors without deep infiltration of tumor malignancy of a size no greater than 3.5 cm in diameter.
The advantage is the simultaneous removal of a malignant tumor with coagulation of blood vessels to prevent bleeding. Generally, laser treatment is performed on an outpatient basis and only once.
After laser treatment the specialists may perform plastic surgery.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. This type of therapy can be assigned for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell skin cancer.
- tumors of large size;
- less accessible areas of the body, such as the eyelids;
- if the appearance after an operation will undergo major changes;
- as adjuvant therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence;
- advanced skin cancer.
The number of courses will depend upon the type, location and size of the tumor.
Radiation therapy in the treatment of skin cancer in Israel has almost no side effects. Perhaps there can be redness and slight pain during the treatment, which will disappear after the end of therapy.
Chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer involves the use of cytotoxic drugs to kill cancer cells. Methods of application: intravenously and in the form of creams or ointments.
Cytotoxic creams or lotions used in the initial stages of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell skin cancer at some small entities. Typically, they are applied one or two times a day for several weeks.
One of the most effective medicines is Fluorouracil, for the treatment of the initial stages of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Israel.
There are some possible side effects: redness, swelling, rash and itching, after two weeks they will disappear. To eliminate edema are prescribed steroids.
Enter the bloodstream medicines spread throughout the body. Such therapy can be carried out both stationary and ambulatory.
For the treatment of squamous cell skin cancer successfully is applied Cisplatin, Doxorubicin, Mitomycin C.
Systemic chemotherapy has many side effects, but with supportive care, receiving funds to restore blood cell rehabilitation takes place in a relatively short time.
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