Leukemia is a group of malignant pathologies of the hematopoietic system. The disease is systemic. It violated the process of hematopoiesis in the result of synthesis of immature abnormal cells in the hematopoietic system organs and the bodies of other systems (vessels, nerves, skin, kidneys, etc.). The percentage of the disease is 0.002%.
Types of leukemia
Various external (radiation, chemical, viral) and internal leukemogenic factors lead to the development of cell mutations. As a result, it is violated the natural process of development of hematopoietic cells. The cells lose their ability to divide and begin to grow indefinitely.
In the body there is a process of accumulation of immature, defective cells, which manifest themselves in the expansions of the tumor. All this leads to intoxication and exhaustion of the body.
Since the rate of healthy leukocytes and platelets is reduced, it deteriorates the immune system. The result is infectious, ulcerous, necrotic complications.
In accordance with the development of the reasons there are several types of leukemia:
- Spontaneous, the causes of which are not revealed;
- Radiation caused by ionizing radiation;
- Fuelled by blastomogenic substances.
According to the predominance of certain elements of the cell, leukemias are divided into erythroleukemia, hemocytoblastoma, reticulosis and others.
In accordance with the content of leukocytes and level of pathological cells are:
- Leukemic form when the number of abnormal cells per cubic millimeter can reach from a few tens to a few million at a rate of six to ten thousand;
- Subleukemic form - the level of abnormal white blood cells are not more than twenty-five thousand per one millimeter cube;
- Leukopenic form – the level of white blood cell is decreased, there is the presence of "leukemic" cells;
- Aleukemic form - white blood cell count is correct, it proceeds with tumor growth
By the nature leukemias are divided into acute and chronic forms.
Acute leukemia is characterized by rapid growth due to the termination of the hemopoiesis process at a certain stage, it stops the aging of immature blasts into mature blood cells. In most cases, it is characterized by the following symptoms: fever, anemia, ulcers, necrosis in various organs.
Chronic leukemia is usually divided according to the destruction of certain elements of the hematopoietic system: erythroleukemia, lymphoid leukemia (lymphocytic) and others.
The symptoms of leukemia
The most common form of chronic myeloid leukemia is myeloid leukemia. In the development of this form there is proliferation of hemopoietic bone marrow elements (fatty bone marrow inside the tubular is replaced by hematopoietic) on other organs - the spleen, lymph nodes, the liver. Blood is full of ranular white blood cells - immature, mature, transient.
The flow of other form - chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by long and relatively benign. The lymph nodes and in some cases the spleen and liver are expanded. Myeloid bone marrow is replaced by lymphoid. There are mature forms of lymphocytes in blood.
The development of anemia is begun, the immune system starts to produce autoaggressive antibodies, sometimes appears thrombocytopenia.
Diagnosis of leukemia in Israel
Diagnosis of the disease is carried out in the departments of hematology clinics or specialized medical centers. The doctor examines the patient, and collects information about the disease, development dynamics, symptoms of the disease. The lymph nodes are checked thoroughly for the treatment of leukemia in Israel in the armpit and in the neck for the purpose of diagnosing tumor formation.
Palpation method is used to explore the surface of the abdomen for swelling, unusual softness, which may indicate the concentration of abnormal cells in the spleen. Laboratory tests are conducted: general and biochemical.
Cytogenetic check is performed, which enables to perform a microscopic examination of the chromosomes in the cells of blood samples, bone marrow, lymph nodes to diagnose genetic changes. Lumbar puncture helps to find out the presence of abnormal cells. Fence is produced mainly from the lumbar region through the use of a special needle with a local anesthetic.
Bone marrow biopsy is the main method of diagnosis of leukemia. It confirms the diagnosis and identifies the type of the disease. The doctor removes a sample under local anesthesia and on the patient's wishes can be used intravenous sedatives. Ultrasonography shows the increased size of lymph nodes in the abdominal region, moreover, the destruction spleen, liver, kidney and other organs.
Widely are used such methods as an x-ray, computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging. They allow you to identify the problem and infected segments. Next is a radiologist interpretation of results, and the final report is sent to the attending physician.
How is the effectiveness of the treatment of leukemia in Israel?
Treatment of this disease in our country is one of the most efficient in the world medicine. Additionally, prices for the treatment of this disease, for example, compared to the rates in in the United States, are several times cheaper.
In the treatment of leukemia in Israel are actively used experimental techniques and innovative therapies in connection with the fact that the standard therapy does not always provide the desired result.
The treatment will depend on the type of pathology. The predominant method of treatment of the disease can be chemotherapy. When there is swelling of the lymph nodes or spleen, radiation therapy can be administered. If the size of the spleen is significantly increased then surgical treatment is provided. One of the most effective methods is a bone marrow transplantation.
The cost of treatment of leukemia in Israel is discussed individually in each case, so we cannot tell the indicated price.
Chronic lymphocytic and myeloid leukemia
The main way to treat lymphocytic leukemia is chemotherapy. If the swelling of the lymph nodes has reached a considerable size, irradiation is appointed, if the size of spleen have increased significantly, is carried out an operation to remove it. In most cases, the treatment of this form of pathology leads to a period of remission, which lasts for several years.
In the treatment of relapse of chronic leukemia, can be administered chemotherapy or immunotherapy, or a combination of these methods. After that may be performed bone marrow transplantation.
The scheme of treatment of this type of leukemia is selected depending on the patient's age, health, individual factors. Treatment in this case may be conducted by chemotherapy, in the absence of results - via bone marrow transplantation.
Treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia can include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, bone marrow transplantation.
The action of chemotherapeutic drugs is aimed at the destruction of cancer cells, slowing their spread. In such cases, are considered three stages of treatment: induction, consolidation and maintenance. The first stage is given to all patients, its purpose is to achieve remission.
The effectiveness of leukemia treatment in children in Israel is 95% among adults - from 75 to 80%.
Induction chemotherapy is different of intense character and takes approximately one month. Then the specialist decides to continue the treatment by bone marrow transplantation or consolidation chemotherapy.
The second phase of chemotherapy is consolidation that may take a period of four to eight months. The main task is to minimize the number of remaining malignant cells. Appointment of drugs and doses in the treatment of leukemia in Israel are determined in accordance with the factors of the risk of complications.
If after the two phases of chemotherapy remission is not achieved, is assigned the third stage of treatment - supportive therapy. The degree of intensity of treatment is maximum, compared with the two previous phases, the treatment can be carried out within two - three years.
Many patients get so-called intrathecal chemotherapy, which aims to prevent the spread of pathology in the central nervous system. The introduction of drugs is carried out by a puncture in the lumbar region.
Radiotherapy is used in rare cases, as a rule, in the treatment of childhood leukemia, if the disease may penetrate into brain and spinal cord.
The main task of bone marrow transplantation is to achieve long-term remission, if the chemotherapy cannot provide a similar result.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Leukemia treatment in Israel in this case takes place in two stages. Phase induction is an attempt to reach an initial period of remission. It lasts about a week, the treatment is carried out intravenously. The second phase of maintenance therapy takes about one month. If there is a relapse, or put a poor prognosis of cancer of the blood, bone marrow transplantation is appointed.